The incidence of osteoporosis continues to rise with the aging population.  This module is an updated version that expired in 2016 with updated agents used to treat osteoporosis.

The incidence of osteoporosis continues to rise with the aging population.  This module is an updated version that expired in 2016 with updated agents used to treat osteoporosis.

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered in clinical practice. This CME module will review the major concepts of hyponatremia to provide the clinician with the knowledge to develop appropriate evaluation and plan of care for patients with hyponatremia.

Hypercalcemia is a common clinical finding in primary care settings. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy account for greater than 90% of hypercalcemia cases.  This module focuses on the role of PTH and vitamin D in Calcium homeostasis, determining the cause of hypercalcemia and the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.

Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding in practice. The clinical importance of thyroid nodules rests with the need to consider the possibility of hyperactive nodules or thyroid cancer. Hyperactivity can be assessed through evaluation of thyroid hormone levels, whereas thyroid cancer requires more invasive investigation. Most thyroid nodules are benign, less than ~10% of nodules are malignant, with some variability depending on age, sex, radiation exposure history, family history, and other factors. Most thyroid cancers fall under the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, which include the subtypes of papillary and follicular cancer, and comprise the vast majority (>90%) of all thyroid cancers.

The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased two to threefold in patients with type 2 diabetes and CVD is the main cause of death in patients with diabetes.  This online module discusses recommendations for the pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes and reviews new data on hypoglycemic agents and the effect on CVD.

The incidence of osteoporosis continues to rise with the aging population.  This module is an updated version that expired in 2016 with updated agents used to treat osteoporosis.